Δευτέρα, 12 Σεπτεμβρίου 2016

THE USE OF KNOWLEDGE IS POWER

THE USE OF KNOWLEDGE IS POWER

When power becomes gracious and descends into the visible — such descent I call beauty. And there is nobody from whom I want beauty as much as from you who are powerful: let your kindness be your final self-conquest.

Cosmic Battle Between Good and Evil

  (g.p.j.''
(g.p.j.''  ''.)


14 March 2014

GMO Agribusiness in India: Grassroots Action against Monsanto, Cargill, Sygenta


In the Times of India article, “Farmers’ groups give wish list to parties,” it states:

More than 100 farmers’ organisations from about 14 states on Thursday presented a charter of demands to political parties for their considering while preparing the manifesto for the Lok Sabha elections.

The groups demanded guarantee of minimum income for farm households, ecologically sustainable farming, shift to organic farming and control of rural communities over agricultural resources, including land, water, forests and seeds. They also demanded that open-air release of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in the garb of field trials be stopped.

Regarding the disturbing trend of suicides sweeping across India’s agricultural sector, the report states:

Citing census data, farmers’ representatives said on an average, one farmer commits suicide every half an hour. Everyday, hundreds of farmers are quitting agriculture.

“The average monthly income of an overwhelming majority of Indian farmers is far less than what their average monthly expenditure is, making it difficult for most farm households to make their ends meet,” said Kavita Kuruganti, convenor for Alliance for Sustainable and Holistic Agriculture.

Clearly, the agricultural sector of India is failing, and it is not because it has not resigned itself to the devices and designs of foreign big-agri corporations, but precisely because it already has. In rebuttal to the growing backlash against corporations like Monsanto, Western media outlets have proposed that the farmers are wrong about why they claim they are killing themselves, and suggests instead it is both neither as serious as portrayed, and certainly not the result of big-agri’s role in monopolizing India’s agricultural sector.
The National Post, in its article, “The myth of India’s ‘GM genocide’: Genetically modified cotton blamed for wave of farmer suicides,” admits that:

A 2011 report published by the Center for Human Rights and Global Justice (CHRGJ) claimed the sale of expensive genetically modified seeds to rural Indian farmers was a key factor contributing to the growing suicide crisis.

“Multinational agribusiness corporations took advantage of India’s new market globalization … by aggressively promoting the introduction of genetically modified seeds in Indian agriculture,” said the report.

But then counters by claiming:

But in 2008, the International Food Policy Research Institute, an alliance of 64 governments, private foundations, and international and regional organizations that aims to end hunger in the developing world, reached an entirely different conclusion.

“It is not only inaccurate, but simply wrong to blame the use of Bt cotton as the primary cause of farmer suicides in India,” said the report, stating that the introduction of Bt cotton in India had actually been effective in producing higher yields and decreasing pesticide usage by nearly 40%.

The credibility and objectivity of the “International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPR),” particularly in regards to the use of Bt cotton in India, is compromised by the fact that its donors list is dominated by organizations of which Monsanto and other GMO purveyors fund directly.

For example, the “Better Cotton Initiative” which funds the IFPR is in turn backed by big-agri giant Cargill. Another IFPR donor is Crop Life International, which in turn is funded by BASF, Bayer, Dow AgroSciences, DuPont, Monsanto, Syngenta, and others. The laundering of big-agri cash and support through proxy organizations to conceal their involvement only further raises suspicion regarding the integrity and veracity of the IFPR’s contradictory report – a report that just so happens to define reality in terms that suits big business.

And of course, the National Post itself appears compromised, with its article parroting, almost verbatim, the official rebuttal posted on Monsanto’s official website regarding Bt cotton. Offered up in a post titled, “Is Bt or GMO Cotton the Reason for Indian Farmer Suicides,” Monsanto also claims “multiple societal issues are contributing to an unacceptably frequent occurrence of farmer suicides in India,” just as the National Post does – and to no one’s surprise, references the very report the recipient of Monsanto’s laundered funding published.

And while big-agri attempts to deflect attention away from the impact of genetically modified crops, the big-agri chemical racket even without the use of GMO has resulted in the ruination of farmers nationwide not just in India, but in nearby Thailand as well. Were big-agri’s miracle cures as good as they claim, farmers worldwide would be enjoying unprecedented, undeniable prosperity, rather than constantly living upon a razor’s edge, and more often than not falling into the abyss all together.

India’s Grassroots are Fighting Back

The above mentioned farmers’ wishlist is just one of many direct actions being pursued by grassroots activists across India. The growing backlash against big-agri is what necessitates the elaborate and expensive deceptions Monsanto and others in big-agri have found themselves increasingly dependent on for increasingly tenuous results.

Events like New Delhi’s “National Seeds Festival” raise awareness of the already existent biodiversity found across India and facilitate networking between organic farmers. The Hindu reported in its article, “Sovereign seeds showcase unique biodiversity,” that:

The farmers announced the formation of a National Seed Savers Forum to strengthen conservation and breeding. They plan to impress upon the government the need to promote diversity conservation and prevent bio-piracy and corporate monopolisation.

It also added:

Dr. Deb said indigenous farmers have paddy varieties that are rich in Vitamin B, but the government ignores them and goes for the GM Golden rice variety being developed by Monsanto. He lamented that nutritious foods, crops and millets are being allowed to disappear.

“We have displayed the richness of India’s biodiversity and seed sovereignty here in the city so that the urban class can appreciate what we have and understand what we stand to lose,” said Kavitha Kuruganti of the Alliance for Sustainable and Holistic Agriculture. “Millets,” she said, “were wiped out because the government is promoting cereals.”

Like elsewhere, organic farmers realize that the government has been, and most likely always will be bent to the will of both domestic and foreign corporate-financier special interests. Getting organized and engaging in increasing degrees of direct action is the only way to influence public perception and protect both their own livelihoods as well as the genetic heritage of their nation’s agricultural resources.

Big-Agri’s Weak, Predictable Counterstrokes

India’s growing anti-big-agri grassroots movement have produced anti-GMO celebrity Vandana Shiva, whose popularity and impact has grown to such a degree internationally, that Wall Street and London’s corporate-financier funded policy think tanks have dedicated entire columns in Western newspapers denouncing her.

GMO peddler Jon Entine of the corporate-funded Neo-Con American Enterprise Institute (AEI) penned “Vandana Shiva, Anti-GMO Celebrity: ‘Eco Goddess’ Or Dangerous Fabulist?” in Forbes, claiming:

Vandana Shiva is a prominent Indian-born environmentalist who has emerged as one of the world’s most prominent critics of conventional agriculture and biotechnology. In the most recent sign of her iconic status, earlier this month, Beloit College in Wisconsin conferred on her a prestigious honor as the Weissberg Chair in International Studies, calling her a “one-woman movement for peace, sustainability and social justice.”

Whether that accurately describes Shiva is debatable—there appears to be a sizable gap between her self-representations and the subjects she claims to be an expert on. However her status as a celebrity activist is not in question. Shiva’s unbridled opposition to GMOs has made her a favorite in liberal and environmental circles. She hopscotches the globe, making frequent appearances at anti-GMO rallies, on college campuses and on lecture tours…

Entine then engages in a rambling, irrelevant attack on Vandana Shiva before regurgitating big-agri’s tired and untrue defense of their demonstrably destructive global practices. While Entine damns Shiva for criticizing GMO and the multinational corporations pushing them, he offers no alternative explanation as to why farmers and food security remain in such a precarious state, or why a large and growing movement is forming against him and his corporate-financier backers.

The use of ineffective, transparently compromised propagandists like Jon Entine, is a sign of weakness from the West’s big-agri racket. The success of Vandana Shiva and the growing movement she is a part of in India gives hope to millions around the world trapped under the boot of multinational corporations like Monsanto, Syngenta, Dow, DuPont, Bayer, and Cargill.

The answer is not simply protesting and demanding from “elected officials” the end of abuses and exploitation by these corporations, but to fill the strategic space in which they operate with pragmatic solutions, alternative paradigms, networks, economic models, market places, and public perception driven by grassroots. Once these are in place, there will be no more room for foreign interests to operate. The successes of India’s organic anti-GMO movement will then serve as a template for other movements to follow – including those seeking justice and protection from big-pharma and big-energy. India’s successes, like those demonstrated elsewhere around the globe, serve as inspiration for others beyond India’s borders.
It was in India where Mahatma Gandhi challenged the might of the British Empire, not with armed resistance or deadly protests in the streets, but by short-circuiting the paradigm of dependence imposed upon India by its foreign occupiers. The echo of his famous marches to the sea where his followers produced their own salt in defiance of British taxes and regulations can be heard across the organic food movement which seeks independence from foreign multinationals in the development of India’s food security.

Just as the British Empire had done to India economically and sociopolitically, big-agri and other multinational corporate rackets are attempting to impose similar models of servile dependence via patented, monopolized biotechnology. Just as the British used any and every excuse imaginable to defend its colonial practices and undermine the champions of freedom and justice that opposed them, Western multinationals are doing likewise today, as seen in the toxic columns penned by the likes of Jon Entine of the American Enterprise Institute and the dishonest assessments published in the National Post.

And just like the British Empire was fighting an ultimately futile battle against a people who had awoken and who would never again sleep in the colonial dreamworld they had constructed, the people of India today are pushing out multinationals and building a wall against their return.
 
Tony Cartalucci, Bangkok-based geopolitical researcher and writer, especially for the online magazine “New Eastern Outlook”

YALE DIVINITY SCHOOL CLASS OF 1962


Yale Divinity School – Class of 1962

~ ……………………50th Reunion Website……………………

Recapturing 1962

This section seeks to recapture what it was like living in 1962.    The parts of this section are:    1.  Milestones,   2.   1962 to 2012 How Life has changed,   3. Events of 1962,  4.  Business, science and technology,  5.   Sports,   6.  Culture
Milestones
            The Cuban Missile Crisis
Tensions had been building between the United States on the one hand and the Soviet Union and Cuba on the other hand prior to 1962.    In 1961 the United States made a half-hearted attempt to invade Cuba and oust Fidel Castro, but when the invasion faced a stiff Cuban army, the Bay of Pigs fiasco left Castro embittered and young President Kennedy looking like a vacillator.    In 1961and 1962 the United States had installed intermediate range missiles on the Soviet border in Turkey with over one hundred nuclear missiles aimed straight at Moscow.   The Soviet Union had as few as several dozen intercontinental ballistic missiles while the United States had 170 ICBMs and was quickly building many more.   Khrushchev was paranoid about the imbalance of power.    Khrushchev was also frustrated with the presence of free Berlin behind the walls of his Iron Curtain.   He believed that at a minimum once missiles were installed in Cuba, he could make a deal to give up the missiles in return for the West turning West Berlin over to the Soviets.
Importantly Khrushchev had concluded that Kennedy was not tough.    He confided in his son that if the Soviet Union installed nuclear missiles in Cuba, President Kennedy would make a fuss and nothing more. The Cuban leadership was convinced that the United States would make another invasion attempt, and they were eager to gain any weapons to even the playing field against the United States.  These conditions set the stage for the unfolding drama.
On July 7 Nikita Khrushchev made his final decision to install offensive nuclear missiles on Cuba.    He decided to carry out the entire operation with “denial and deception” or what is called Maskirovka.    Under the guise of sending agricultural advisors, he deployed Soviet weapons experts to Cuba to begin the logistics of planning nine missile bases.    On September 11 the Soviet Union issued a public warning that any US attack on Cuba or Soviet ships carrying supplies to Cuba would result in war.    The CIA Director, John McCone received information that strange sites were under construction in Cuba and he wrote a memo to President Kennedy on August 10 warning of the possibility that the Soviet Union might introduce ballistic missiles into Cuba.
In early September Air Force General Curtis LeMay presented President Kennedy with an aggressive bombing plan to deal with Cuba.    On September 8 the first shipment of Soviet missiles arrived and they were dispatched to the nine different missile bases.    Some of these missiles had the capability of reaching 2,800 miles which put them within range of most of the continental United States.
The CIA continued to receive warnings – reports from agents in Cuba of large trucks traveling at night with very long cargo under thick canvas.    On September 30 a Navy reconnaissance aircraft photographed a Soviet ship carrying large crates consistent with a cargo of light bombers.
On October 14 the Kennedy administration authorized a manned U-2 flight to photograph Cuba looking for anything suspicious.    The result was hundreds of photographs including clear images showed what appeared to be at least one missile site.
October 15, 1962 Reconnaissance photos show missile sites
On October 16 Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara concluded that the evidence was credible, and he informed President Kennedy who immediately called a meeting of his National Security advisers.
This group discussed the possibility of offensive nuclear missile installed just 99 miles south of Florida and they sorted through their options.    There were six options on the table:
  1. Do nothing:    American vulnerability to Soviet missiles was not new.   Newly placed missiles in Cuba made little strategic different in the balance of power.
  2. Diplomacy:   Use diplomatic pressure to get the Soviet Union to remove the missiles.
  3. Warning:   Send a message to Castro to warn him of the grave danger that he and Cuba were in.
  4. Blockade:   Use the U.S. Navy to block any missiles from arriving in Cuba.
  5. Air strike:    Use the U.S. Air Force to attack all known missile sites.
  6. Invasion:   Full force invasion of Cuba and overthrow of Castro.
The Joint Chiefs of Staff unanimously agreed that the only solution was a full scale invasion.     President Kennedy was skeptical.   He was also skeptical about the notion of air strikes.    He calculated that this would trigger the Soviets occupying Berlin.
They went back to discussing the softest options.     They considered doing nothing.   They discussed the present balance of power, and McNamara pointed out that the United States had about 5,000 strategic warheads while the Soviet Union had only about 300 total.
CIA photo of Soviet missiles in parade in Red Square
If they added 40 more in Cuba, the score would still be 5,000 to 340.   The United States would not lose any meaningful edge in a comparison of military power.    President Kennedy pushed back against this argument saying that these new missiles would alter the political balance of power.   President Kennedy reminded everyone that less than a month prior he had promised the American people that America would act if Cuba acquired the capability to launch offensive attacks against the United States.
With the knowledge that there were already Soviet missiles in Cuba, on October 18 President Kennedy invited the Soviet Foreign Minister, Andrei Gromyko, to meet with him at the White House.

He tested Gromyko who claimed that any weapons were for defensive purposes only.   Kennedy knew better but he didn’t reveal what he knew.
On October 19 U-2 spy planes revealed four operational missile sites.    Kennedy ordered the military to prepare for war.    Five army divisions were alerted for action, and the Strategic Air Command sent 47 bombers to airports in Florida ready to fly on short notice.
By now Kennedy was meeting daily with his national security team, and at their October 21 meeting Robert McNamara proposed a naval blockade as a way to stop Soviet shipments into Cuba.   President Kennedy warmed to the idea, but the group concluded that it should not be called a “blockade” because that is technically an act of war.    Someone suggested calling the blockade a “quarantThe national security team now mostly shifted its support to the naval quarantine tactic.
On October 22 the die was cast.    President Kennedy first presented his plans to Congressional leaders who argued vehemently for a stronger response.    He then alerted U.S. allies such as Canada, the UK, West Germany and France.    They were all supportive although the West German leaders worried about retaliation against West Berlin.   That night, October 22, President Kennedy spoke to the American people at 7 p.m. Eastern time on all the major networks explaining for the first time the discovery of these hostile missiles and the U.S. response of a quarantine.
Oct. 22 President Kennedy speaks to the nation on television broadcast
In sober tones he explained that any nuclear missile launched from Cuba toward the United States would be regarded as a Soviet attack and would trigger a full retaliatory response against the Soviet Union.   He also explained the quarantine explaining the incoming ships would be stopped, boarded and searched.    Ships carrying ordinary necessities of life would be released to dock at Cuba.    In other words, the United States would not try to starve Cuba into submission as the Soviets had attempted with their Berlin blockade of 1948.
Oct. 23 President Kennedy signs quarantine proclamation
At the same time the military identified a heavy cruiser to serve as the U.S. flagship during this quarantine.
On October 23 the world waited to see what would happen.    On this same day, a senior State department official, George Ball, sent a cable to the U.S. Ambassador to Turkey exploring the idea of a reciprocal withdrawal of missiles.   What if the United States removed its missiles from Turkey?  Would that persuade the Soviets to remove the Cuban missiles?    Turkish officials said they would “deeply resent” any such withdrawal, but the idea was now on the table.
On October 24 Khrushchev sent a telegram to President  Kennedy and the text was broadcast in the Soviet Union in which Khrushchev warned that a “pirate action” in international waters would lead to war and adding that it views this blockade as an act of aggression and their ships will ignore it.
Nikita Khrushchev (66) and Fidel Castro (35)
On October 25 Castro reaffirmed Cuba’s right to self-defense and claimed that all its weapons were defensive in nature and said Cuba would not allow any inspections.    Tensions were heightened when China announced that 650 million Chinese were standing with the Cuban people.     That same day the United States called for an emergency meeting of the United Nations Security Council where U.S. Ambassador Adlai Stevenson confronted the Soviet Ambassador with these offensive missiles.    The Soviet ambassador refused to respond.
Now for the first time in history B-52 bombers were sent to various locations to be on high alert, ready to fly on 15 minutes’ notice.     Two dozen of these nuclear-armed B-52 bombers were sent to cruise within striking distance of the Soviet Union so that the Soviet Union would see these planes and be impressed with the serious intent of the United States.     These plane crews reported that there was no increase in activity in the Soviet air force.
Also on October 25 the first incoming ship was intercepted, boarded and searched.
Oct. 25 US Destroyer intercepts ship heading for Cuba
Once its cargo was found to be harmless and it was released.    Later in the day a total of 14 different Soviet ships responded to the quarantine by turning back to their Soviet ports.    The assumption was that they carried offensive weapons.
On October 26 President Kennedy informed his advisers that he believed that an invasion would be necessary to remove the missiles that were already in place.   The group worked through the scenario.    They assumed that an invasion would be necessary, and if the Soviet Union engaged militarily, then the United States would be ready to launch a nuclear strike against the Soviet Union.
Fortunately, there were also some secret negotiations taking place behind the scenes including on meeting of a high level state department official with a Soviet spy at a Chinese restaurant in Washington, D.C.      The state department official offered two carrots:    1.) a statement that the U.S. would be “unlikely to invade” Cuba if the missiles were removed and 2.) a possible reciprocal removal of the U.S. missiles in Turkey although this would be not be made public and thus would not be part of a public deal.
On this same day, October 26, Castro was assuming that an invasion was imminent, and he sent a telegram to Khrushchev urging him to make a pre-emptive nuclear strike on the U.S.   The U.S. intelligence service learned on October 26 that six of the nine sites were now fully operational.
On October 27 a manned U-2 spy plane was shot down over Cuba and the U.S. pilot was killed.    That escalated tension still further.    There was a discussion about immediately military retaliation against Cuba – perhaps an air strike against the anti-aircraft base that shot down the plane, but Kennedy said, “Let us wait and see.”
The very next day, on October 28, Khrushchev and Kennedy worked out two deals.   There was a public deal that agreed that all Soviet missiles would be dismantled and shipped back to the Soviet Union under full inspection by U.N. officials.    The United States, in turn, agreed not to invade Cuba.    That was the public deal.  The entire world breathed a sigh of relief. What was not announced and little known was that Khrushchev had won a concession from the United States to remove its missiles from Turkey in the foreseeable future.
A series of ships departed from Cuba between November 5 and November 9 loaded with the now dismantled nuclear bombers.   
US reconnaissance plane observes ship departing with nuclear bombers
   The next month in early December another series of ships was loaded with the Soviet bombers.    On November 20 the blockade officially ended.   Quietly, discreetly the U.S. removed its missiles from Turkey 11 months later.
The epilogue:    Castro’s reaction was that he was more angry with Khrushchev than with Kennedy.   He felt Khrushchev had backed down.   Kennedy was surprised that the blockade worked.   He thought a military invasion would be necessary and he later said that he thought the chances of war were at least one in three.    It was later learned that the local Soviet commander had the full authority to launch those nuclear missiles without any further codes or authorization from Moscow.    General Curtis LeMay was one of a very small minority that was disappointed with the agreement.    He complained that this deal was “the greatest defeat in our history.”   Khrushchev abided by the deal not to go public with the Turkey agreement although it made him look like he simply flinched.    The Politburo was embarrassed and they blamed Khrushchev for the twin mistakes of initiating a risky offensive move and then his humiliation of backing down.  Within 24 months the Politburo had removed Khrushchev from power.   He lived his remaining days in disgrace.
One early result of the crisis was the establishment of a “Hot Line” in which the leaders of the Soviet Union and the United States agreed to talk on a special phone line in any future crisis to seek to avoid a nuclear Armageddon.
The rest of the story:    The cold war is over.    The Soviet Union is dissolved.   Russia is not exactly an ally, but it is no longer a nuclear enemy.    There have been huge strides of progress in nuclear disarmament – especially in the last 25 years.    The number of warheads has dropped from 65,000 worldwide in 1985 to about 21,000 today.    The threat of nuclear proliferation continues to be in the news – most recently centered on Iran.   But by any measure that crisis in 1962 was a turning point, and most Americans live in far less fear of a nuclear Armageddon than we did in the fall of 1962.   I happened to be on a trip to Russia several years ago, and our thoughtful Russian guide told her version of the story, and she explained that like many Russians she is proud and grateful for Khrushchev having the good sense to back off.
James Meredith integrates the University of Mississippi
James Meredith became the first African-American student at the University of Mississippi in early October of 1962.   The main outlines of that event are well known.   But “the rest of the story” holds some surprises.    James Meredith was one of 10 children growing up on a farm in a relatively enlightened area of Mississippi.    Although his father, Moses, was the son of a slave, Moses became a land owner and ran a successful farm.   He also voted regularly – something that was unthinkable for many African Americans in other parts of Mississippi.   His son, James, was a very good student.   He walked four miles each way to attend the Negro high school.   He graduated from high school in 1951 and entered the Air Force.   There he found a home.   James married and found acceptance and success in serving in an integrated U.S. Air Force.     In fact during his military service in Japan, he enjoyed being treated as an equal to the whites and the Asians in and around that air force base.
After nine years in the Air Force he entered civilian life in 1960.   By this time he had formulated a goal to attend and graduate from the University of Mississippi.   He had seen the diploma of the University of Mississippi in the office of a white doctor, and James believed that it was the finest university in the state.    He was a small man – 5’ 6” tall and weighing 135 pounds.    He dressed neatly in dark suits.   He was polite and soft spoken.    He was not naïve.   He knew that getting accepted would be very difficult, and if accepted, he would be surrounded by hate and alienation on campus.
He charted his course with his typical care.   He had already earned over 50 credits in the military and now he enrolled in an African-American college in Mississippi to earn additional credits.   In 1961 he was ready.   His first act was to confer with Medgar Evers the NAACP representative in Mississippi.   Medgar Evers put him in touch with the Legal Defense Fund of the NAACP and the legal talent of Thurgood Marshall.
In January of 1961 he sent a letter of application to the University of Mississippi.   When he explained that he was an African American, he received no further reply.   Now his NAACP lawyers began to file briefs on his behalf.   The school claimed that he was not serious about getting an education, but his application was simply a device to stir up trouble.    In a trail before a Mississippi judge, the judge ruled that there was no evidence that his rejection at the University was based on race.   His lawyers appealed that decision to the Court of Appeals in New Orleans, and this court ordered that he be admitted.     Mississippi then appealed to the U. S. Supreme Court which rebuffed their appeal and ordered Meredith to be admitted to the school.
Now the 65-year-old governor intervened.    Governor Ross Barnett had earlier been a lawyer who argued cases on behalf of disenfranchised African-Americans, but in his campaign for the Governor’s office, he became converted to a rabid segregationist.    He inserted himself into the controversy by mandating that he would personally take over the administration of the university and ordered all state employees to defy the court order (to admit James Meredith).   Now the Kennedy administration became involved.   Robert Kennedy ordered 500 U.S. Marshalls to Jackson, Mississippi to oversee the peaceful admission of James Meredith.
Governor Barnett was adamant and announced that “Mississippi must be kept segregated at all costs.    … The good Lord was the original segregationist.   He made us white because He wanted us white, and He intended that we stay that way.”
The lines were drawn.   Accompanied by US Marshalls on September 20 Meredith was marched to the Office of the Registrar where is sought to register, but he was turned away.   Now Governor Barnett issued an executive order directing state officials to arrest anyone who tried to arrest or fine a state official in connections with the Meredith case.   Obviously the “anyone” referred to federal officials.   It was becoming a potential confrontation of force between federal and state officials.  Governor Barnett called for hundreds of state troopers to come to Jackson and be put on 24-hour standby alert.
Attorney General Bobby Kennedy phoned James Meredith and assured him
Attorney General Bobby Kennedy on the phone to Mississippi
that that federal government would take whatever steps were necessary to get him enrolled.    On September 26 Meredith returned with a cadre of U.S. marshals, but now they were blocked by hundreds of uniformed and armed state police officers.   A shoving match ensued, and eventually the U.S. marshals retreated and drove away.
At this point Governor Barnett began negotiating with Bobby Kennedy.   He was looking for a face-saving way out.   He suggested that he would stand and block entrance to the registrar’s office, and the U.S. marshals would all draw their guns and then he would relent.   Surprisingly Attorney General Kennedy agreed to the play acting, but at the last minute Barnett changed his mind.    By now the campus was filled with gangs of angry whites, and he was afraid of wide spread bloodshed.
The new target date was Friday, September 28.    By now Bobby Kennedy had called up 110 U.S. soldiers, and they arrived in Memphis ready to be rushed in to Jackson.    The escalation continued when retired general Edwin Walker arrived in Jackson.   He had been disciplined in the army for indoctrinating his troops with John Birch society propaganda.   He went on a local radio station and issued a call for 10,000 volunteers from all 50 states to converge on Jackson, Mississippi to stand with Governor Barnett.   Hundreds of trouble makers drove in from neighboring states armed with baseball bats and guns.
U.S. Marshalls confront angry mob at Ole Miss
Now Meredith was settled secretly into an apartment on campus where he was under heavy guard, and a team of U.S. marshals marched to occupy the Registrar’s Building.    They were soon surrounded by an angry crowd.    There were 500 U.S. marshals and they were under order not to fire.   Their only weapon was tear gas.    For the better part of 24 hours these marshals were under siege and their lives were in danger.   Indeed 160 of them were wounded by rocks and bullets.   Two innocent bystanders were killed – execution style.
Finally the US army marched into the crowd with rifles and bayonets, and the protest melted away.   On October 1 James Meredith was admitted to the University of Mississippi.
Oct. 1 James Meredith is escorted by U.S. Marshalls to register
Meredith was surrounded by bodyguards who stayed with him 24 hours a day.   He began attending class.   Most of the students either ignored him or shouted obscenities.
The rest of the story:   Meredith’s student dies were filled with the danger of physical harm as well as constant emotional harassment.    When he entered a class everyone ignored him.   When he sat down at a table in the luncheon cafeteria, the white students all got up and took their trays elsewhere.   Those few white students who did engage with Meredith in a friendly manner were immediately ostracized, and most of them dropped out of school.   He was under armed guard every day.   The white Mississippians assumed he would not be able to endure for more than a week or so.    But James Meredith stuck it out, and he graduated from the University of Mississippi with a degree in political science on August 18, 1963.
What are less well known are the following chapters in the story.    Meredith organized and led a civil rights march from Memphis to Jackson to encourage blacks to register and vote after the passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965.   He was attacked and wounded on his march and other civil rights leaders joined him.    He enrolled in Columbia University and earned his law degree there in 1968.
He ran for public office several times as a Republican and lost each time.    In 1989 he surprised most civil rights activists by joining the staff of the Republican Senator Jesse Helms.   He turned against the concept of civil rights because he believed it implied that as a black person he needed help and intervention to make his mark in the world.    He said, “Nothing could be more insulting to me than the concept of civil rights.   It means perpetual second-class citizenship for me and my kind.”    He was most proud that his son, Joseph, graduated from the University of Mississippi School of Business number one in his class.
James Meredith is now 79 and lives in Jackson, Mississippi with his second wife, Judy.
 Rachel Carson publishes Silent Spring in September 1962
An accomplished marine biologist and nature writer, 55-year-old Rachel Carson had received a letter from a friend who observed that she no longer heard the singing of songbirds and speculated that they were disappearing.    That letter inspired Rachel Carson to research the diminished numbers of birds and begin her research into the possible links with pesticides such as DDT.    She tapped her resources in the scientific community as well as the federal government where she had worked for years in the Department of Fisheries.    What she found was that the unlimited application of pesticides was indeed linked to the vanishing of the birds.   The birds ingested these pesticides and this affected their eggs which had thin shells and often did not survive to protect the unborn chick.    Her book labeled these pesticides “biocides” because they harm all life, and she called for a reduction (not the complete ban) on the use of chemical pesticides.
Rachel Carson was an accomplished marine biologist and nature writer
She and her publisher Houghton Mifflin knew the book would be controversial so she carefully shares her manuscript with leaders in the scientific community.     When the book was released it generated a storm of criticism from two fronts:   the chemical industry with companies such as American Cyanamid, DuPont and Monsanto mounting scathing attacks on her findings and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (which then had dual responsibility for the promotion of agriculture and the regulation of pesticides).   Her conclusions were attacked as unsubstantiated by the science, and she was attacked personally.    She was attacked because 1.) Her advanced degree was not in chemistry (she had an MA in zoology from Johns Hopkins University),     2. She was a hysterical woman.    Ezra Taft Benson (former Secretary of Agriculture) concluded that because she was both attractive and single, she must be a Communist working under cover.
The book was an instant best seller.
Silent Spring was an instant best-seller
The widely publicized criticism of the chemical industry increased the awareness of the book and generated additional sales.   It was selected for the Book of the Month Club.    Perhaps the climax of the controversy took place in a TV special hosted by CBS that aired in April of 1963 in which one of her critics appeared in his white lab coat looking every bit the mad scientist and Rachel Carson appeared anything but the hysterical alarmist that her critics contended.   Rachel Carson also testified before President Kennedy’s Science Advisory Committee which went on to review and confirm her essential findings.
The rest of the story:     Rachel Carson was diagnosed with cancer before she began writing her book, and she endured a mastectomy and a series of primitive radiation treatments.   The treatments made her anemic and impaired her energy level.   This made it difficult to make appearances to defend her findings.   However the academic community strongly supported her conclusions, and the public did as well after that CBS TV special in April of 1963.   The cancer reached her liver in March of 1964 and she died in April of 1964.
The book was the trigger for the creation of the federal Environmental Protection Agency during the Nixon administration.   It also led in 1972 to the complete ban of DDT in the United States.   Silent Spring is on many lists as one of the most important nonfiction books of the 20thcentury.     Her work was the embryo in the birth of a perspective that “a U.S. citizen has a fundamental right to a clean and safe environment.”   President Jimmy Carter gave her a posthumous award of The Presidential Medal of Freedom.   Schools and streets have been named after her and her childhood home has been named a national historic Landmark in 1991.   She donated her papers to the then new Beinecke Library at Yale University because of its reputation for world-class preservation.   Perhaps her greatest legacy is the return of the bald eagle in the United States.  In 1962 the bald eagle seemed headed for extinction in the lower 48 states, and they were a rare sight.    Fifty years later the bald eagle has multiplied and is a common sight throughout much of the United States.
The American bald eagle has made a great comeback in the United States.
But surprisingly the controversy is still alive.    The main criticism is that she called for a complete ban of DDT (which she didn’t), and that her book caused DDT to stop being used in places in the Third World to fight malarial mosquitoes.    Some critics say that the book deserves an “honorable mention” in the list of the most harmful books ever written.   Some critics go so far as to say that 80 million deaths across the world (mostly from malaria) are her responsibility.   The fact is that countries such as Sri Lanka ceased using DDT in the 1970s and 1980s because the mosquitoes had already developed resistance to DDT.
It is interesting to note that 50 years later, the opponents of environmental protection take exactly the same approach was those early critics of Silent Spring.    First, they argue that the science is unproved.   Further conclusive proof is needed before any remedial action should be taken.    Then when further proof comes in, the argument is put forward that we cannot afford to enact remedial measures.  It will hurt the economy.    Sometimes (almost) nothing changes.
1962 to 2012:   How Life has Changed
I trust many of us in the YDS Class of 1962 have been ruminating about the differences in life between 1962 and 2012.    I have.    Perhaps some of you have indulged in a little nostalgia about “the good old days.”    I certainly have.    But then I decided to focus on the ways life has improved since 1962.
As your faithful webmaster I hope you will indulge me in some personal reflections.   Of course each of us has our own perspectives in these matters.    This is just one perspective.
The three milestones listed above certainly resulted in changes in our country – changes for the good.   The missile crisis startled us into an awareness of the terrible dangers of nuclear weapons.    Since 1962 safeguards have been put in place, especially with the Hot Line, to prevent a nuclear war based on a simple misunderstanding.    Public attitudes have shifted to an almost universal horror at the use of any nuclear weapons.    These public attitudes are reflected in agreements and policies which have resulted in the destruction of many nuclear warheads.    Most Americans agree that bi-lateral disarmament is a good thing.  Both the United States and Russia have only a fraction of the nuclear warheads they had in the past.   The United States conducted its last atmospheric atomic bomb tests in 1962.
The integration of the University of Mississippi was a major step forward in integrating college education in particular but in the civil rights struggle in general.    What followed were more civil rights bills including the Voter Registration Act so that now African Americans have much greater opportunities and access to voting, housing, education, and careers.
The publication of Silent Spring was the trigger that created a groundswell of support for protecting the environment – cleaning up our lakes and rivers and reducing noxious fumes in our air.    Pesticides and herbicides are widely viewed as “biocides” and they are used much more carefully than 50 years ago.     The “green movement” is real and has many aspects from conservation and preserving the nature to recycling to conservation.
In the broad area of civil rights I have touched on the signs of progress for African Americans.    The same is true for women.   In my Presbyterian denomination that were almost no women serving as ordained ministers 50 years ago and relatively few in lay leadership roles (except church school).   Now about 50% of the incoming ministers are women, and women serve in key leadership roles in many churches.   Of course rights and opportunities for women now start at a young age thanks to the federal legislation that created equal athletic opportunities for girls and young women in high school and college.    Many of us probably have granddaughters enjoying soccer, volleyball, etc. as a result of this important change.  In the last 25 years gays and lesbians have seen striking progress toward equality.     My denomination has finally withdrawn its  a priori disqualification of gays and lesbians from ordination.    It has been a long and painful struggle, but no one can deny the huge advances we have made in this latest civil rights struggle.    Another group of people who were systematically marginalized were the disabled.    We have a classmate who is confined to a wheelchair, and his life is a reminder of how important those special curbs and ramps are for those with limited mobility.
Health care is another area where we have witnessed giant steps of progress.   The new miracle drugs that control cholesterol and manage hypertension have extended the quality of life for millions of Americans (to give just one example).    Diseases such as leukemia which were once a death sentence are now amenable to cures.
Many Americans are more fit than was typical 50 years ago.   This is the result of the whole focus on fitness with fitness centers and the enthusiasm for working out, for running, for walking, for swimming.  The result is that 75 year olds are now enjoying much better health than our parents and grandparents did.
Entertainment is another aspect of life that has brought many life-enhancing innovations.    We listened to music on record players fifty years ago, and they were expensive.    You could easily spend $300 for a home record player console.     Today you can buy an iPod and listen to a whole library of music whether sitting in a canoe in the middle of a lake or walking through the streets of New York.
Automobiles have been improved beyond measure.   During my YDS days I was driving a 10 year old Ford with 90,000 miles.   It was on its last legs.   The clutch was almost gone, there was so much rust the front benders waved in the breeze.  The floorboards were so rusted I could see the road whizzing by beneath my feet.   The car got about 12 miles per gallon, so I could go about 200 miles between tank fills, but the trouble was that it burned about a quart of oil every 100 miles.   Therefore on the highway between gas tank fills, I had to stop and pour in another quart of oil.     As it happens I am now driving a car that has 93,000 miles on it.   It is a four year old Toyota Prius.    It doesn’t have a speck of rust.   It looks more or less new.   It gets 45 miles to the gallon.  It burns no oil, and it has a wonderful GPS system to direct me to almost any location.   There is a CD player so we can listen to books on tape as we drive across the country.   There is also an AM/FM/Satellite radio so we can listen to the BBC news or slightly left of center talk shows no matter where we are in the country.   Oh, and there is a rear view camera that goes on automatically which reduces my incidence of boinking into fire hydrants when I am driving in reverse.   If we adjust for inflation the price of a new Toyota Prius is similar to the new car price of a 1950 Ford.   I have nostalgia for that 1950 Ford, but nothing more.
Telephone service has seen giant improvements.   When I was engaged in 1962 and my fiancée was living in Los Angeles, we could not afford to talk to each other on the phone because the long distance rates were prohibitively high for students.    Now for about $30 a month you can buy an unlimited long distance calling plan for your phone.   And cell phones mean you can make and receive calls no matter where you happen to be.
We have many things that save time and make life more convenient.   For example, pocket calculators were introduced in 1972.   They were considered a miracle at the time.   ATMs came into existence in 1977, and now we can conduct our banking at a convenient street corner.
Personal computers have generated seismic changes.    I have a friend teaching in China, and we communicate instantly via e-mail.    I love Wikipedia for its instant access to information.    Websites (such as our class website) allow people to share stories, photographs and information with each other.
Digital cameras make it cheap and easy to record an event.    I am aware that there are those who are social critics of our age of technology.    I am not a technie by any means.  I don’t use a smart phone or an iPad.   I don’t tweet or browse Facebook.    I can barely operate my cable television set.    But I find that technology saves so much time and opens up so many opportunities that it can greatly enhance life.    Technology was quite primitive in 1962.    We often wrote term papers by hand at YDS.   If we had access to a typewriter, we made copies by using carbon paper.   The Xerox copy machine was not introduced until after we graduated.   I remember a classmate who did me a favor after we graduated.   He made for me a copy of Calhoun’s lecture notes on the History of Christian Doctrine.   He had a lawyer friend who used his law firm’s new Xerox machine to make these magical copies.
I am no expert on social or cultural trends, but anecdotally it seems to me that there is more volunteerism in the United States than 50 years ago.   One of our classmates is a full-time volunteer, driving an ambulance 40 hours per week.    There is also an explosion of philanthropy including innovations in philanthropy such as micro-lending.    One of our classmates started a micro lending fund for women in his native Sierra Leone.   I don’t think micro lending was conceived until well after 1962.
I could go on and on, but I will conclude with a comment about how food and eating has benefited from the changes of the last 50 years.    Our local supermarkets offer fresh fruits all year long, fresh raspberries (from somewhere) sold in Minneapolis in January.    It’s wonderful.   And we have a choice of dozens of different ethnic restaurants – Indian, Chinese, Japanese, Italian, Greek, etc – all within a few miles of our downtown apartment.   If you enjoy eating, 2012 has it all over 1962.

Events
January:   Pope John XXIII excommunicates Fidel Castro.  The US Navy Seals are created.  Two members of the high-wire “Flying Wallendas” are killed during a performance in Detroit.
February:
The Berlin Wall was erected in February of 1962
In February the Berlin wall goes up.   Many East Germans risk their lives to tunnel under or climb over the wall. First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy gives a televised tour of the White House as 46 million Americans tune in.
In February the U.S.Supreme Court rules that segregation is onconstitutional in all transportation facilities.
On February 20, John Glenn circles the globe three times in Friendship 7 to become the first American to orbit in space.
On Feb. 20 John Glenn becomes the first American to orbit the earth.
March:   The Ash Wednesday snow storms buries the Mid-Atlantic region
April:    A New Orleans White Citizens Council offers Negroes a one-way ticket to leave New Orleans and move north.
May:    12 East Germans escape by way of a tunnel they had dug beneath the Berlin Wall.  The new Coventry Cathedral is consecrated.
The Boston Celtics led by Bill Russell win another NBA championship, this time over the Los Angeles Lakers.
On May 29 at a gala 45th birthday
Marilyn Monroe singing to President Kennedy
party for President Kennedy, Marilyn Monroe sings a sultry version of “Happy Birthday, Mr. President.”
June:   President John F. Kennedy gives
President Kennedy speaks at Yale commencement on June 11, 1962
the commencement address at West Point and then at Yale University where he quips, “Now I have the best of two worlds – a Harvard education and a Yale degree.”  A number of old Yale grads write letters to the Yale Alumni Magazine objecting to this honorary degree.    A member of the class of 1908 said the honor bestowed on Kennedy was a source of “considerable distress” to him.    A member of the class of 1953 wrote that Kennedy was “a pathetic product of Harvard who regards individual human freedoms in this nation as mere hindrances to his determined experiments toward a planned socialist state.”    In the photo are the Yale Provost Norman S. Buck, the Connecticut Senator Prescott S. Bush, President Kennedy, and the President of Yale University A. Whitney Griswold.
Students for a Democratic Society hold their first convention and issue their “Port Huron statement.”    It criticizes the United States government for its cold war ideology and its arms race.   It calls for an end to racial discrimination.   It advocates nonviolent civil disobedience as a means to achieve greater participatory democracy.   In a break with other New Left movements, it specifically criticizes the ideology of anti-communism.    It will become known simply as SDS, and this SDS will become a household word in 1968 when it organizes nationwide student strikes at college campuses, perhaps most famously at Columbia University where they shut down the school.    Adlai Stevenson spoke at the United Nations in opposition to the admission of China to the UN.
The U.S. Supreme Court rules that mandatory prayers in public schools are unconstitutional.     Four Lutheran groups merge to form the Lutheran Church in America (LCA).
France signs a truce with the FLN in
1962 Algerian Independence celebration
Algeria under the leadership of Prime Minister Charles de Gaulle, and this leads to the complete independence of Algeria before year’s end.
July:   AT&T launches Telstar,
Telstar is the first communications satellite
the world’s first commercial communications satellite.   Before the year is over, it is beaming television images from Europe to the United States.  At first these images are grainy and in black and white, but they are instantaneous, and later that year Americans will marvel to see President Kennedy and his wife on their European visit instantly as if they are walking through the next town.
Andy Warhol premieres his Campbell’s Soup Cans” exhibit in Los Angeles.   This same year he produces his famous serious of Marlyn Monroe pictures.
The U.S. conducts its last atmospheric
One of the 100 atomic bomb tests conducted by the U.S. in 1962
atom bomb test at the Nevada Test Site.
August:  Albany, Georgia becomes the
Martin Luther King arrested
next southern city to be the focus of the Civil Rights movement.   Martin Luther King and James Foreman, Executive Secretary of the Student Non-violent Coordinating Committeew (SNCC) lead peaceful protests and marches.   They are arrested along with many others.    Our deceased classmate, Fred Buss, was among those jnailed in Albany.   But
April in Long Island, NY
segregation is not just a southern problem.   It is a national problem.
school segregation protest in Montclair, NJ
Marilyn Monroe dies of an overdose of sleeping pills.   Ringo Starr joins the Beatles.
September:   President Kennedy reaffirms his commitment to put a man on the moon before the end of the decade.   The last radio broadcast of “Suspense.”
October:  James Meredith is admitted
Life magazine published this illustration of a proposed “community bomb shelter”
to the University of Mississippi.    The Cuban Missile Crisis grips the world in October.
Pope John XXIII convenes the Second Vatican Council.  It is the first ecumenical council in the Roman Catholic Church in 92 years.   The “Columbus Day Storm” hits the Pacific Northwest with wind gusts reaching 170 mph.   46 people are killed and 11 board feet of timber is blown down.   Uganda becomes independent.   Ted Kennedy runs for the U.S. Senate.
Ted Kennedy runs for the U.S. Senate seat in Massachusetts
November:   The United Nations General
1962 Nelson Mandela at the time of his imprisonment
Assembly passes a resolution condemning South Africa’s apartheid policies and calls on member nations to refrain from economic relations with this country.  Richard Nixon loses his race to be Governor of California and tells reporters they “won’t have Nixon to kick around anymore.”
In November a Rembrandt painting makes the cover of Time magazine when it sells for $2.3 million.
December:   President Kennedy sends U.S. Senate Majority Leader, Mike Mansfield, to Vietnam to review the military and political situation of the conflict where 8,000 U.S. military advisers are involved.   Mansfield returns with a less than optimistic assessment of the progress of the war against the communists.   Although the U.S. still has only limited involvement in Vietnam in 1962 there were casualties nonetheless such as this downed helicopter.
A 114-day New York City newspaper strike affects all the city’s major newspapers.
On Christmas Eve Cuba releases the last of its 1000 prisoners from the abortive Bay of Pigs invasion in exchange for food worth $53 million.
On December 30 the state of Maine is deluged with five feet of snow, and the Bangor Daily News misses a publication date for the first time in its history.  During the year the Peace Corps attracted thousands of idealistic volunteers.
Deaths:  Fritz Kreisler (87), Austrian violinist;  Bruno Walter (86), German conductor;

Adolph Eichmann (56) German Nazi official was executed; Vita Sackville-West (70), English gardener and writer); William  Faulkner (65), American author; Marilyn Monroe (36), American movie actress; Hermann Hesse (85), German-born writer; E.E. Cummings (68), American poet; Karen Blixen (77), Danish writer; Eleanor Roosevelt (78), former First Lady of the USA;  Niels Bohr (77), Danish physicist;  Charles Laughton (63), English actor;
Business, technology and science
            The medium family income (for a family of four) was $6,000 per year.  The minimum wage was $1.25 (which for a 2,000-hour working year turns out to be $2,500).    A new house cost about $15,000.     The illustration shows a “dream kitchen” filled with the latest Frigidaire appliances.
A new car cost about $2,500.   PIctured is a 1962 Buick Special which was the Motor Trend “Car of the Year” in 1962. Gasoline was 25 cents a gallon.    A first class postage stamp cost 4 cents, and a local call at a pay phone cost 10 cents.    A movie ticket cost 50 cents and popcorn was an extra 20 cents.   A candy bar cost 5 cents, a packing of chewing gum 5 cents, a soft drink 10 cents, and a hamburger at a fast food restaurant cost 20 cents.    A doctor’s visit cost $5 – the same price as a pair of tennis shoes.    But a refrigerator cost about $500, and a new color TV set was about $400.  Tuition to attend Harvard for one year was $1,520.   A new battery-powered transistorized tape recorder was introduced.   It used 3: reel to reel tapes and could record up to two hours on one reel.   It sold for $98 and was used to record conference, etc.   Radio alarm clocks were selling for $25, and they offered AM music and
A portable phonograph sold for $39.95
a snooze alarm button.   You could buy a portable phonograph to play LPs and 45s.
      
You could also splurge on the top of the line in musical listening pleasure by purchasing an RCA Victor Total Sound Stereo cabinet for $230.
      Retail discount chains were born in 1962.    S.S. Kresge opened its first Kmart store in Garden City, Michigan.    The first Target store was opened in Roseville, Minnesota, and the first Walmart store was opened in Rogers, Arkansas – all in 1962.
Long distance phone calls were expensive in 1962.    In fact, the phone company ran magazine advertisements seeking to encourage readers to call their grandchildren long distance on the phone.
The Ranger 3 was launched in January to study the moon, but it missed its target by 22,000 miles.    In February John Glenn became the first American to orbit in space.    Then in May, Scott Carpenter orbits the earth three times in the Aurora 7 space capsule.   In August NASA launches the Mariner 2 space probe, and in December it transmits images back to earth from Venus.
On September 12 President John F. Kennedy at a speech at Rice University reaffirms that the United States will put a man on the moon by the end of the decade, i.e. by 1969.
Swanson introduced TV dinners
Swanson’s new TV dinners
for the first time in 1962.   Of course, you put them in the oven to cook instead of the microwave, because the microwave oven had not yet been invented.
The Seatlle World’s Fair in 1962 was
Seattle World’s Fair
promoted as introducing the United States to the 21st century.  It featured a monorail as well as a space needle restaurant.
Polaroid was beginning to penetrate the photograph market with its new “instant pictures.”
Sports
            Baseball is the most popular professional sport, and the New York Yankees defeat the San Francisco Giants in the World Series behind the hitting of Willie McCovey.    Wilt Chamberlain was one of the first 7-footers, and he scored 100 points for the Philadelphia Warriors in a victory over the New York Knicks.
Sonny Liston knocks out Floyd Patterson to take the heavyweight boxing crown.
Of course we now know that Sonny Liston would soon lose to Cassius Clay.
In golf Arnold Palmer is loved by fans, and he will serve as a catalyst for the growing popularity of the sport of golf in America.   He wins the British Open, but there is a new golfing star on the horizon, and he wins the U.S. Open.   His name is Jack Nicklaus.
Culture
            The world of popular music was in a transition period.   In 1962 the crooners were popular such as Bobby Vinton singing “Roses are Red” and Pat Boone “Speedy Gonzalez” and Neil Sedaka “Breaking Up is Hard To Do.”    Ray Charles exploded unto the music scene with two top hits, “I Can’t Stop Loving You” and  “You Don’t Know Me.”     Elvis Presley still reigned with “Return to Sender.”
Audrey Hepburn doing the “Twist”
“Twist and Shout” was a big hit and helped introduced the new dance craze – the twist.    There were two other new dances introduced in 1962:   the “Mashed Potato” and  the “Watusi.”   It was the era of California surf songs with the Beach Boys releasing “Surfin’ Safari” with “409” on the flip side.   The Beatles first big hit was “Love Me Do.”   In August Peter, Paul and Mary release their 1st hit:    “If I Had a Hammer” and they contribute to a surge in folk music.  The Shirelles are one of the popular girl groups (along with the Crystals) with their record, “Soldier Boy.”
Long Play records (LPs) had become popular
RCA Victor record club
and they were often sold through record clubs which offered the first 5 LPs for $1.87 and then you agree to purchase five more in the next 12 months at $4.98 each (or $5.98 if you requested the higher cost stereo version of the record).
In 1962 Robert Zimmerman changed his name to Bob Dylan.   He was in New York City playing in Greenwich Village coffee houses and visiting his idol Woody Guthrie who was hospitalized and dying of Parkinson’s Disease.   Most people had never heard of Bob Dylan in 1962.    Likewise the Beatles and the Rolling Stones had been organized but they were still little known bands in England.  Late in the year the Beatles cut their first single, “Love Me Do.”
In 1962 the newly organized Rolling Stones were wearing jackets and ties.
The Beatles and the Rolling Stones played at their first gig in 1962.







“Lawrence of Arabia” starred Peter O’Toole
The movies were a big part of American culture, and 1962 was a banner year for new movies.   The biggest movie of the year was David Lean’s epic, Lawrence of Arabia starring Peter O’Toole (30), the new star Omar Sharif (30), and established actors such as Alec Guinness (48) and Anthony Quinn (47).   It would win the Oscar for Best Picture, and Peter O’Toole won “Best Actor.”   Other big movies that were new in 1962 were:   “The Manchurian Candidate,” starring Frank Sinatra (47) and Angela Lansbury (37) and  “To Kill a Mockingbird.”  This was based on the 1960 book by Harper Lee and featured Gregory Peck (46) as the lawyer-father of Scout.   Other movies were  “What Ever Happened to Baby Jane?” featuring Bette Davis (54) and Joan Crawford (57).   “Lolita,” starred James Mason (53) and Shelley Wintters (42).   “The Miracle Worker” starred Anne Bancroft (31) and 16-year-old Patty Duke.   “Days of Wine and Roses,” starred Jack Lemmon (37) and Lee Remick (27).   Still other big movies for 1962 included “Long Day’s Journey into Night” with Katherine Hepburn (55), “The Music Man,” Winter Light”, “Dr. No,” starring James Bond, “Cape Fear” and “How the West was Won.”On Broadway the big shows were “How to Succeed in Business without really Trying,” “A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum” with Zero Mostel and “A Man for All Seasons” starring Paul Scofield.


A minor musical “I Can Get It for You Wholesale” launched the career of 20-year-old Barbra Streisand and her big voice.
“A Raisin in the Sun” continued to pull in large crowds for its Broadway performances.

1962 marked a key transition from radio to television.   CBS broadcasts the last episode of “Suspense” which, some say marks the end of the Golden Age of radio.   In 1962 90% of American households have a television set.    ABC television network begins broadcasting in color.
The Hunntley-Brinkley Report
In 1962 Chet Huntley (51) and DavidBrinkley (42) were featured on the NBC evening news program called “The Huntley-Brinkley Report.”   It was broadcast in black and white and lasted only 15 minutes.   It would be expanded to 30 minutes in 1963 and in would begin broadcasting in color in 1965.  In this same year Walter Cronkite became the new anchor at CBS evening news.    In October Johnny Carson replaced Jack Paar as the host of NBC’s “Tonight Show.”   It would begin a 30-year run for Carson.
The most popular television shows of 1962 were:    “Wagon Train,” “Bonanza,” “Gunsmoke,” “Hazel,” “Perry Mason,” “The Red Skelton Show,” “The Andy Griffith Show,” “Candid Camera,” “Lassie,” “Sing Along with Mitch,” and “The Ed Sullivan Show.”    Bob Newhart made his TV debut in 1962.   New TV programs in 1962 included:   “Father Knows Best,” “The Beverly Hillbillies,” and “The Lucy Show.”

Some of the important books released in 1962 include The Moviegoer by Walker Percy, Catch 22 by Joseph Heller, Franny and Zooey by J.D. Salinger, and The Spinoza of Market Street and Other Stories by Isaac Bashevis Singer.   Some of the notable non-fiction books were Silent Spring by Rachel Carson, The City in History: Its Origins, Its Transformations and Its Prospects by Lewis Mumford, Nobody Knows My Name by James Baldwin, The Making of the President by Theodore H. White, and Sex and the Single Girl by Helen Gurley Brown.  In 1962 Stan Lee introduced two comic book super heroes:  first the Incredible Hulk and later in the year he creates Spider-Man.
Leonardo da Vinci’s “Mona Lisa” tours the United States.   For insurance purposes it was assessed at $100,000,000 but the Louvre decides not to insure it, instead spending the money premium money on security instead.
Leonard Bernstein was rehearsing the New York Philharmonic for performing in the new Lincoln Center.

The sack dress was the new fashion statement.

Natalie Wood starred in “West Side Story.”

In 1962 there were already concerns about the survival of urban churches in America.